The rf photocathode gun and the solenoid for the SPARC project at INFN-LNF (Frascati) have been fabricated and undergone initial testing at UCLA. The advanced aspects of the design of these devices are detailed. Final diagnosis of the tuning of the RF gun performance, including operating mode frequency and field balance, is described. The emittance compensating solenoid magnet, which is designed to be tuned in longitudinal position by differential excitation of the coils, has been measured using Hall probe scans for field profiling, and pulsed wire methods to determine the field center. Comparisons between measurements and the predictions of design codes are made.
ORION will be a user-oriented research facility for understanding the physics and developing the technology for future high-energy particle accelerators. The ORION Facility will bring together the needed resources for performing a wide range of experiments in advanced accelerator and beam physics. The facility has as its centerpiece the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) within End Station B at the SLAC Central Research Yard. That site will be modified with the addition of a new high-brightness photoinjector, its associated drive laser and rf power system, a user laser room, a low-energy experimental hall supplied with electron beams up to approximately 60 MeV in energy, and a high-energy hall supplied with beams up to 350 MeV. Facility construction is anticipated to start in October 2003, contingent upon funding approval, and first beam is planned for 2005. The first experiment at ORION, the laser acceleration experiment E163, has been approved by SLAC. In this paper, results are presented on the revised facility layout and design which came out of the 2nd ORION Workshop in February 2003, and the beam physics design of the injector and the beamlines for the low and high-energy experimental halls.
The design of the Linac Coherent Light Source assumes that a low-emittance, 1 nC, 10 ps beam will be available for injection into the 15 GeV linac. The proposed RF photocathode injector that will meet this requirement is based on a 1.6-cell S-band RF gun equipped with an emittance-compensating solenoid. The booster accelerator with a gradient of 25 MV/m is positioned at the beam waist coinciding with the first emittance maximum, i.e., the "new working point." The UV pulses required for cathode excitation will be generated by tripling the output of a Ti:sapphire laser system. Details of the design and the supporting simulations are presented. (12 References).
We report the results of a recent beam dynamics study, motivated by the need to redesign the LCLS photoinjector, that lead to the discovery of a new effective working point for a split RF photoinjector. We consider the emittance compensation regime of a space charge beam: by increasing the solenoid strength, the emittance evolution shows a double minimum behavior in the drifting region. If the booster is located where the relative emittance maximum and the envelope waist occur, the second emittance minimum can be shifted to the booster exit and frozen at a very low level (0.3 mm-mrad for a 1 nC flat top bunch), to the extent that the invariant envelope matching conditions are satisfied. Standing Wave Structures or alternatively Traveling Wave Structures embedded in a Long Solenoid are both candidates as booster linac. A careful measurement of the emittance evolution as a function of position in the drifting region is necessary to verify the computation and to determine experimentally the proper position of the booster cavities. The new design study and supporting experimental program under way at the SLAC Gun Test Facility are discussed.
We are experimenting with low energy electron beams as a means of cleaning and improving the quantum efficiency of metallic photocathodes. Electron beam surface cleaning has been used successfully in electron cooling devices at Fermilab (S. Nagaitsev) and Novosibirsk (A.N. Sharapa and A.V. Shemyakin). The cooling device data indicates that a 2 mA h/cm2 specific dose of 3 keV electrons on the surface of the photocathode will produce a surface with an outgas rate at least one order of magnitude lower than a 24 hour 400
We report the results of a recent beam dynamics study, motivated by the need to redesign the LCLS photoinjector, that led to the discovery of a new effective working point for a split RF photoinjector. The HOMDYN code, the main simulation tool adopted in this work, is described together with its recent improvements. The new working point and its LCLS application is discussed. Validation tests of the HOMDYN model and low emittance predictions, 0.3 mm-mrad for a 1 nC flat top bunch, are performed with respect to the multi-particle tracking codes ITACA and PARMELA. (26 References).
Previous experimental measurements in the two dimensional (2D) variation of the quantum efficiency, QE, of a polycrystalline copper photo-cathode have measured a 25% variation in this quantity. Two possible causes of this 2D QE variation are contamination of the photo-emitting surface and the work function variation of copper due to crystal facet orientation. We report on the progress to eliminate the 2D QE variation due to the non-uniform crystal facet orientation of copper photo-emitters. This is accomplished by replacing the polycrystalline photo-emitter region of the cathode plane in a modified version of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell rf gun with a thin disk of a single crystal copper Cu_100. In this paper we present a theoretical discussion on the effect that the crystal structure orientation of a photo-emitter has on the 2D QE. The manufacturing process used in the construction of the single crystal Cu_100 photo-cathode used in these photo-emission experiments are discussed. Preliminary experimental results are presented along with a discussion of our future experimental plans.
We report on the design of the RF photoinjector of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The RF photoinjector is required to produce a single 150 MeV bunch of similar to 1 nC and similar to 100 A peak current at a repetition rate of 120 Hz with a normalized rms transverse emittance of similar to 1 pi mm-mrad. The design employs a 1.6-cell S-band RF gun with an optical spot size at the cathode of a radius of similar to 1 mm and a pulse duration with an rms sigma of similar to 3 ps. The peak RF field at the cathode is 150 MV/m with extraction 57 degrees ahead of the RF peak. A solenoidal field near the cathode allows the compensation of the initial emittance growth by the end of the injection linac. Spatial and temporal shaping of the laser pulse striking the cathode will reduce the compensated emittance even further. Also, to minimize the contribution of the thermal emittance from the cathode surface, while at the same time optimizing the quantum efficiency, the laser wavelength for a Cu cathode should be tunable around 260 nm. Following the injection linac the geometric emittance simply damps linearly with energy growth. PARMELA simulations show that this design will produce the desired normalized emittance, which is about a factor of two lower than has been achieved to date in other systems. In addition to low emittance, we also aim for laser amplitude stability of 1% in the UV and a timing jitter in the electron beam of 0.5 ps rms, which will lead to less than 10% beam intensity fluctuation after the electron bunch is compressed in the main linac.
The beam dynamics of an integrated S-band RF photoinjector based on the plane wave transformer (PWT) concept, proposed as part of an SBIR collaboration between UCLA and DULY Research, are studied. The design, which calls for an 11.5 cell structure run at a peak accelerating field of 60 MV/m and uses a compact solenoid around the initial 2.5 cells, is based on a recently developed theory of emittance compensation. It calls for matching the beam onto a generalized equilibrium envelope, which produces a beam which diminishes in transverse size monotonically with acceleration. This condition minimizes the emittance, which is 1 mm-rad at Q=1 nC. This design is also scaled to produce nearly identical performance at X-band, giving an injector appropriate to running an FEL at the SLAC NLCTA. These designs are insensitive to RF emittance increase, allowing a wide choice of injection phase, and the option to compress the emitted pulse. (8 References).
The BNL/SLAC/UCLA symmetrized 1.6 Cell S-band emittance-compensated photoinjector has been installed at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The commissioning results and performance of the photocathode injector are presented. This emittance-compensated photoinjector consists of the symmetrized BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell S-band photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun and a single solenoidal magnet for transverse emittance compensation. The highest acceleration field achieved on the cathode is 150 MV/m, and the normal operating field is 130 MV/m. The quantum efficiency of the copper cathode was measured to be 4.5*10/sup -5/. The transverse emittance and bunch length of the photoelectron beam were measured. The optimized RMS normalized emittance for a charge of 300 pC is 0.7 pi mm-mrad. The bunch length dependency of photoelectron beam on the RF gun phase and acceleration fields were experimentally investigated. (11 References).