We present a proposal of a SASE-FEL experiment, VISA, to be done at the ATF linac unsing a 4m long undulator, to study the FEL collective instability regime, including saturation, start-up, time dependence and spectral and angular characteristics of the radiation. The experiment will use a complete set of diagnostics tools to allow a detailed comparison of the experimental results with the theory and the simulation codes. The experiment is being proposed by the VISA group, BNL-LLNL-LANL-SSRL/SLAC-UCLA collaboration. The experiment is part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of short wavelength, UV to X-ray, FELs based on teh SASE collective instability regime. This program has received the highest priority from the Birgenau panel, which has recently presented a report to DOE on future needs and development of synchrotron radiation sources in the USA. This top priority has been confirmed by the fact that the Basic Energy Sciences division of DOE has already provided the funding needed to carry our VISA.
We describe a diagnostics system developed, to measure exponential gain properties and the electron beam dynamics inside the strong focusing 4-m long undulator for the VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) FEL. The technical challenges included working inside the small undulator gap, optimising the electron beam diagnostics in the high background environment of the spontaneous undulator radiation, multiplexing and transporting the photon beam. Initial results are discussed.
A chicane compressor is being designed and constructed at UCLA for implementation at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility. The beam optics, including collective fields, and expected performance of the device has been simulated using TRACE3D and ELEGANT. Based on these studies, as well as constraints due to downstream ATF optics, the chicane magnet specifications were determined. The dipole magnets were designed using AMPERES 3D magnetostatic modeling, and have been constructed. Implementation of this device at the ATF, as well as initial physics experiments on coherent synchrotron radiation emission (and associated emittance growth) at 70 MeV, and expected performance enhancement of the VISA SASE FEL experiment, are discussed.
Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations. (31 References).
The visible to infrared SASE amplifier (VISA) FEL is designed to obtain high gain at a radiation wavelength of 800 nm. The FEL uses the high brightness electron beam of the accelerator test facility (ATF), with energy of 72 MeV. VISA uses a novel, 4 m long, strong focusing undulator with a gap of 6 mm and a period of 1.8 cm. To obtain large gain the beam and undulator axis have to be aligned to better than 5 mu m. Results from initial measurements on the alignment, gain, and spectrum will be presented and compared to theoretical calculations and simulations. (10 References).
The well developed theory of short wavelength SASE-FELs is now being used to design two X-ray lasers, LCLS and Tesla-FEL. However, the physics and technology of these projects present some unique challenges, related to the very high peak current of the electron beam, the very long undulator needed to reach saturation, and the importance of preserving the beam phase-space density even in the presence of large wake-field effects. In the first part of the paper, we review the basic elements of the theory, the scaling laws for an X-ray SASE-FEL, and the status of the experimental verification of the theory. We then discuss some of the most important issues for the design of these systems, including wake-field effects in the undulator, and the choice of undulator type and beam parameters. (74 References).
The most important characteristics of an X-ray SASE-FEL are determined by the electron beam energy, transverse and longitudinal emittance, and by choice of the undulator period, field, and gap. Among them are the gain and saturation length, the amount and spectral characteristics of the spontaneous radiation, the wake fields due to the vacuum pipe. The spontaneous radiation intensity is very large in all X-ray SASE-FELs now being designed, and it contributes to the final electron beam energy spread, thus affecting the gain. It also produces a large background for the beam and radiation diagnostics instrumentation. The wake fields due to the resistivity and roughness of the beam pipe through the undulator, also affects the beam 6-dimensional phase space volume, and thus the gain and the line width. In this paper, we discuss ways to optimize the FEL when considering all these effects. In particular we consider and discuss the use of a hybrid iron-permanent magnet helical undulator to minimize some of these effects, and thus optimize the FEL design.
Free Electron Lasers up to the visible regime are dominated by diffraction effects, resulting in a radiation size much larger than the electron beam. Thus the effective field amplitude at the location of the electron beam, driving the FEL process, is reduced. By using a waveguide, the radiation field is confined within a smaller aperture and an enhancement of the FEL performance can be expected. The PEGASUS injector at UCLA will be capable to provide the brilliance needed for an IR SASE FEL. The experiment Power Enhanced Radiation Source Experiment Using Structures (PERSEUS) is proposed to study the physics of a waveguide SASE FEL in a quasi I D environment, where diffraction effects are strongly reduced as it is the case only for future FELs operating in the VUV and X-ray regime. The expected FEL performance is given by this presentation.